Les feux d’Australie prés de 500 millions d’animaux morts

Les feux d’Australie prés de 500 millions d’animaux morts

Une étude d’écologues de l’université de Sydney estime que, dans le seul État de Nouvelle-Galles du Sud, 480 millions de mammifères, oiseaux, reptiles sont morts brûlés ou asphyxiés depuis septembre. Au moins 20 % de la population de koalas, animal emblématique, a disparu. La repousse des arbres et la repopulation animale pourraient nécessiter 40 ans.

Réputé pour sa biodiversité animale et végétale, le sud-est de l’Australie, notamment l’État de Nouvelle-Galles du Sud, paie déjà un lourd tribut aux gigantesques, longs et violents incendies du « bush » – un mélange de broussailles et d’arbres à feuilles dures – qui balaient son territoire depuis plusieurs mois. Et ce malgré l’intervention de milliers de pompiers, d’avions et d’hélicoptères largueurs d’eau.

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Un continent important pour ses richesses animales et végétales

Une rapide étude de l’Université de Sydney estime que dans le seul État de Nouvelle-Galles du Sud, le plus touché par ces feux, 480 millions d’animaux ont été tués depuis septembre. Et selon les chercheurs, ces taux de mortalité sont très « prudents », ont-ils souligné vendredi 3 janvier dans un communiqué. Le bilan final pourrait être « considérablement plus élevé ».

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« Au point de vue de la biodiversité, l’Australie, immense île-continent de 7 millions de km2, soit 14 fois la France, est considérée comme l’un des points chauds de la planète, rappelle François Moutou, naturaliste. Car un grand nombre de ses animaux et de ses plantes sont endémiques, c’est-à-dire qu’ils n’existent que sur cette île australe. »

On pense naturellement à la grande famille des marsupiaux, ces mammifères vivipares dont le développement embryonnaire s’achève dans la cavité ventrale de la mère, qui renferme les mamelles. Les plus connus sont les kangourous – le grand kangourou roux vivant dans le bush et l’outback (sorte de bush sans arbre), et le petit gris, inféodé aux côtes – et le koala. Pouvant atteindre des vitesses de plus de 60 km/h, les kangourous ont pu échapper aux flammes. Mais pas le koala.

Le koala, espèce emblématique de l’Australie, très sensible aux incendies

Cette petite peluche essentiellement arboricole, dépendant de quelques variétés d’eucalyptus pour son alimentation, a déjà été très touchée par les feux, sa zone d’habitation se trouvant à cheval sur le Queensland et la Nouvelle-Galles du Sud. Encore appelé paresseux australien, c’est une espèce de marsupial arboricole herbivore endémique d’Australie, le dernier représentant d’une famille.

Près de 30 % de son habitat habituel est parti en fumée selon Susan Ley, ministre fédérale de l’Environnement interrogée par ABC. « Ce qui, toutefois, ne signifie pas que 30 % d’entre eux ont péri dans les flammes, car d’une part les feux ne se propagent pas comme une vague continue mais laissent des zones intactes, et d’autre part les flammes passent parfois vite et superficiellement, limitant ainsi les brûlures », observe François Moutou.

« Avant les incendies, la population de koalas était estimée entre 43 000 et 80 000 individus selon l’Australian Koala Foundation, indique Elisa Chapuis, étudiante d’AgroSup Dijon, ayant effectué un stage de trois mois dans cette association au printemps dernier. « Aujourd’hui, entre 5 000 et 10 000 koalas auraient été tués. Le drame, c’est que cela fait des années que la loi australienne protège l’animal lui-même, mais que les gouvernements successifs, notamment le premier ministre conservateur actuel, refuse de protéger son habitat, vital pour sa survie ». Animal fragile (notamment à cause d’une bactérie qu’ils hébergent tous), il est déjà obligé d’aller se réfugier dans les petites villes, dans les jardins arborés ou en haut des poteaux électriques.

Un bestiaire extrêmement divers

Deux autres mammifères emblématiques habitent l’est de l’Australie : l’échidné, terrestre, ressemblant à un hérisson, et l’ornithorynque, semi-aquatique, tous deux étant ovipares et allaitant leur petit.

Bien d’autres animaux encore sont typiques de l’Australie : les dingos, chiens sauvages au pelage doré ; les dromadaires hérités des chameliers afghans ; les varans presque aussi gros que le dragon de Komodo ; les lézards plus petits ainsi que le taipan du désert, le serpent le plus venimeux au monde. Chez les oiseaux, le continent est riche en martins-pêcheurs, cacatoès, perroquets de toutes les couleurs, ainsi qu’en rapaces (milans, faucons, aigles d’Australie).

L’inventaire serait incomplet si on oubliait la flore. À commencer par l’immense famille des eucalyptus, originaires d’Australie où ils dominent 95 % des forêts ; l’acacia ; les Melaleuca dont l’un est l’arbre à thé ; l’araucaria, un conifère dont l’écorce est constituée de grosses écailles surnommé « désespoir des singes » ; et enfin les orchidées.

Pour Andrew Beattie, professeur de biologie à l’Université Macquarie à Sydney, le nombre de décès d’animaux à l’échelle nationale pourrait se chiffrer en milliards « si vous pensez aux mammifères, aux oiseaux, aux reptiles et aux amphibiens et que vous vous comptez les plus gros insectes comme les papillons ».

Reste toutefois l’espoir des zones épargnées par le feu. Un repeuplement végétal et animal dans les zones les plus touchées dépendra du climat, de la météo (pluies) et de l’exploitation forestière. Un retour à la normale pourrait prendre jusqu’à 40 ans.

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